Confederate States: Black Codes

Encouraged by President Johnson’s evident intention to return to them the management of their own affairs, Southern legislators, elected by white voters, passed what came to be called Black Codes. Their very evident purpose was to reduce free blacks to…
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Luftwaffle: A powerful air force

In February 1935 Hitler openly acknowledged the existence of the new German Luftwaffe (air force), in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles that limited German military development. Under the direction of two former fighter ace comrades of the Red Baron, Ernst Udet and…
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French Army and the Maginot Line

“This is not peace. This is an armistice for twenty years [how right you were!].” ~ Foch on the Treaty of Versailles. Winston Churchill in 1933 exclaimed to the British Parliament, “Thank God for the French Army!” Without a doubt,…
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Confederacy vs Union politics

Though scholars energetically debate whether or not the Confederate States of America achieved “nationhood,” there is no denying that the Confederacy acted as a separate country for the four years of its existence. While the United States continued to operate normally (elections,…
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Jackson’s Valley Campaign

Valley Campaign of 1862 resulted in 6 battles, 48 days, approximately 646 miles of marching for Southern troops, and a Confederate victory which had strategic impact in the overall war plans
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Short: Women in the Confederacy

Sally Louisa Tompkins (November 9, 1833 – July 26, 1916) THE ANGEL OF THE CONFEDERACY Only woman commissioned as an officer in the CSA Captain Sally Louisa TompkinsWas a humanitarian, nurse, and philanthropist. She is best-remembered for privately sponsoring a…
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Reflection of the 1861 Comet

“All who saw the comet last night witnessed an unusual celestial phenomenon,” wrote the Hartford Courant on the morning of July 1, 1861. “A comet, exceeding in brilliancy, size, and proximity to our planet any that have appeared within the recollection of…
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